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2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a meta-analysis accounting for exposure levels

Smith, Adam M ; Smith, Martyn T ; La Merrill, Michele A ; Liaw, Jane ; Steinmaus, Craig

Annals of Epidemiology, April 2017, Vol.27(4), pp.281-289.e4 [Rivista Peer Reviewed]

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  • Titolo:
    2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a meta-analysis accounting for exposure levels
  • Autore: Smith, Adam M ; Smith, Martyn T ; La Merrill, Michele A ; Liaw, Jane ; Steinmaus, Craig
  • Note di contenuto: To access, purchase, authenticate, or subscribe to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2017.03.003 Byline: Adam M. Smith, MPH (a), Martyn T. Smith, PhD (a), Michele A. La Merrill, PhD (b), Jane Liaw, MPH (c), Craig Steinmaus, MD [craigs@berkeley.edu] (c,*) Keywords 2,4-D; Lymphoma; Non-Hodgkin's; Meta-analysis; Occupational Highlights * 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) has been one of the most commonly used pesticides worldwide and may be carcinogenic. * The current epidemiologic evidence supports an association between 2,4-D and NHL. * The associations between 2,4-D and NHL are seen in studies involving high exposures. Abstract 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is one of the most commonly used selective herbicides in the world. A number of epidemiology studies have found an association between 2,4-D exposure and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) but these results are inconsistent and controversial. A previous meta-analysis found no clear association overall but did not specifically examine high-exposure groups. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the peer-reviewed epidemiologic studies of the associations between 2,4-D and NHL, with a particular focus on high-exposure groups, and evaluations of heterogeneity, dose-response, and bias. A total of 12 observational studies, 11 case-control studies, and one cohort study, were included. The summary relative risk for NHL using study results comparing subjects who were ever versus never exposed to 2,4-D was 1.38 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07--1.77). However, in analyses focusing on results from highly exposed groups, the summary relative risk for NHL was 1.73 (95% CI, 1.10--2.72). No clear bias based on study design, exposure assessment methodology, or outcome misclassification was seen. Overall, these findings provide new evidence for an association between NHL and exposure to the herbicide 2,4-D. Author Affiliation: (a) School of Public Health, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley (b) Department of Environmental Toxicology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California at Davis, Davis (c) Arsenic Health Effects Research Program, UC Berkeley School of Public Health, Berkeley, CA * Corresponding author. Arsenic Health Effects Research Program, UC Berkeley School of Public Health, 2470 Telegraph Ave., Suite 301, Berkeley, CA 94704. Tel.: (510) 990-8354. Article History: Received 9 July 2016; Accepted 19 March 2017
  • Fa parte di: Annals of Epidemiology, April 2017, Vol.27(4), pp.281-289.e4
  • Soggetti: 2,4-D ; Lymphoma ; Non-Hodgkin'S ; Meta-Analysis ; Occupational ; Medicine ; Public Health
  • Lingua: Inglese
  • Tipo: Articolo
  • Identificativo: ISSN: 1047-2797 ; E-ISSN: 1873-2585 ; DOI: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2017.03.003

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